Archive for the CULTURE of Indonesia Category

‘Game of Thrones’ tourism spots

Posted in CULTURE of Indonesia with tags on June 15, 2013 by 2eyeswatching

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‘Game of Thrones’ tourism spots–1282688282.html

Tourism has picked up in Croatia, Morocco and Iceland, where “Game of Thrones” is filmed

Dubrovnik, Croatia, also known as King’s Landing. (Photo: Dubrovnik Tourist Board)

Where do Westeros and Essos fall on the map exactly? They don’t. These are the mythical lands where the HBO series “Game of Thrones” takes place. Still, the locations where the show films —IcelandMorocco and Croatia – are some very real destinations for travelers hoping to capture the spirit of the epic fantasy.

Playing on their GoT ties, Iceland Naturally held a recent Behind the Wall Sweepstakes. The winner will be immersed in landscapes where GoT has filmed, including the eutrophic Lake Mývatn with its wetlands, Dimmuborgir’s volcanic lava formations, Hverfell Crater, one of the world’s largest symmetrical explosion craters, and Höfði on Kalfastrandarvogur Bay, famous for its stunning lava formations, including Klasar and Kalfastrandarstripar.

Ouarzazate, Morocco, known for scenes featuring GoT’s Daenerys Targaryen is an ancient, walled Berber city, known as “the gateway to the desert.” It’s other nickname – the “Hollywood of Morocco.” The city’s desert locale has made it the perfect setting for films including Gladiator, Lawrence of Arabia and Troy.

Ouarzazate, Morocco, featured in “Game of Thrones.” (Photo: Morocco National Tourist Office)And why not, with scenery aplenty from the UNESCO World Heritage Site, the fortified city and well-preserved Kasbah of Ait Benhaddou, Dadès Gorge, Valley of Roses and the Sahara Desert. Ouarzazate is garnering increased bookings of late, with reporting its own 100% increase in the city.

Dubrovnik, Croatia, was chosen as the site of GoT’s King’s Landing in 2011. On the UNESCO World Heritage List, Dubrovnik’s Old Town, known as the Pearl of the Adriatic, has several sites that were a perfect fit for GoT. Situated on the Dalmatian Coast, the late-medieval walled city of Old Town is ripe with Gothic, Renaissance and Baroque churches, monasteries, palaces and fountains. Feature on GoT – Pile Gate, a medieval planned development of the 15th century, and the 11th-century Lovrijenac Fortress, located on a cliff.

Also spied on GoT is the Island of Lokrum, the home of Dubrovnik’s first Benedictine Abbey in 1023. The French made their mark on the island in the 19th century by building Fort Royal Fortress there. Still to catch when touring Dubrovnik’s GoT locales is the Arboretum Trsteno. One of the region’s oldest arboretum’s, Trsteno was the 15th-century Renaissance summer residence of Gučetić-Gozze family with a garden, aqueduct, mill, Neptune fountain and belvedere pavilion overlooking the sea.

Has tourism amped up in these areas because of GoT?

“It’s hard to tell that the increase we are having last years is directly related to the filming of the famous HBO show,” Jelka Tepsic of the Dubrovnik Tourist Board told Yahoo! Travel.

What she points to instead – tourist arrivals bouncing up 10% in 2012 and tourist overnight stays up 12%. has increased booking at a none-too-shabby 28%. Kayak, the online metasearch site, has seen a 30% bump in tourist interest in Dubrovnik.

game of thrones

Filming “Game of Thrones” in Dubrovnik. (Photo: Dubrovnik Tourist Board)

game of thrones

Quarzazate, Morocco, featured in “Game of Thrones.” (Photo: Morocco National Tourist Office)

game of thrones

Iceland, where scenes from The Wall were flmed for “Game of “Thrones.” (Photo: Iceland Naturally)

game of thrones

Iceland, where scenes from The Wall were flmed for “Game of “Thrones.” (Photo: Iceland Naturally)

game of thrones

Blue Pool in Hveravellir, central highlands of Iceland. (Photo:
Iceland Naturally)

game of thrones

Essaouira, Morocco. (Photo: Morocco National Tourist Office)

game of thrones

Iceland, where scenes from The Wall were flmed for “Game of “Thrones.” (Photo: Iceland Naturally)

game of thrones

Essaouira, Morocco. (Photo: Morocco National Tourist Office)

game of thrones

(Photo: Iceland Naturally)

Keris – Javanese and other’s tribes Traditional Dagger/ Blade.

Posted in CULTURE of Indonesia on November 16, 2011 by 2eyeswatching

Keris – Javanese and other’s tribes Traditional Dagger/ Blade.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia and others.

The kris or keris is an asymmetrical dagger indigenous to Indonesia,MalaysiaSingaporeThailand and Brunei. It is known as kalis in thesouthern Philippines. The kris is famous for its distinctive wavy blade, but many have straight blades as well. Both a weapon and spiritual object, kris are often considered to have an essence or presence, with some blades possessing good luck and others possessing bad.

In 2005, UNESCO gave the title Masterpiece of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity to the kris of Indonesia. In return, UNESCO urged Indonesia to preserve their heritage.


The origin of the word kris derived from the old Javanese term ngiriswhich means to stab, wedge or sliver. “Kris” is the more frequently-used spelling in the West, but “keris” is more popular in the dagger’s native lands,[2] as exemplified by the late Bambang Harsrinuksmo‘s popular book entitled Ensiklopedi Keris (Keris Encyclopedia). Two notable exceptions are the Philippines, where it is usually called kalisor kris, and Thailand where it is always spelled and pronounced as kris. Other spellings used by European colonists include “cryse”, “crise”, “criss”, “kriss” and “creese”.


Kris history is generally traced through the study of carvings and bas-relief panels found in Southeast Asia. It is widely believed by archaeologists that the earliest kris prototype can be traced to Dong Son in Vietnam circa 300 BC. From there, the design would have been brought into present-day Malaysia by Cham migrants who made their way into the Malay Peninsula twenty centuries ago. Another theory is that the kris was based on daggers from India. Frey (2003) concludes from Raffles‘ (1817) study of the Candi Sukuh that the kris recognized today came into existence around 1361 AD in the kingdom of Majapahit. There exist claims of earlier forms predating the Majapahit kris but none are verifiable. In the past, the majority of kris had straight blades but this became less frequent over time. Some of the most famous renderings of a kris appear on the Borobudur temple (825 CE) and Prambanan temple (850CE). Tome Pires, in early 16th century, describe the importance of Kris to the Javanese  :

Kris were worn on a daily basis, especially when travelling because it might be needed for self-defense. Heirloom blades were handed down through successive generations and worn during special events such as weddings. Men usually wore only one kris but the famous admiralHang Tuah is said in the Hikayat Hang Tuah to have armed himself with one short and one long kris. As women were also permitted to learnsilat, they sometimes also wore kris, though of a smaller size than a man’s.

Kris were often broken in battle and required repairs. Yearly cleanings, required as part of the spirituality and mythology surrounding the weapon, often left ancient blades worn and thin. The repair materials depended on location and it is quite usual to find a weapon with fittings from several areas. For example, a kris may have a blade from Java, a hilt from Bali and a sheath from Madura.

In many parts of Indonesia, the kris was the choice weapon for execution. The executioner’s kris had a long, straight, slender blade. The condemned knelt before the executioner, who placed a wad of cotton or similar material on the subject’s shoulder or clavicle area. The blade was thrust through the padding, piercing the subclavian arteryand the heart. Upon withdrawal, the cotton wiped the blade clean. Death came within seconds.


The kris usually has a curved pistol-grip hilt that aids in stabbing strikes. It allows the palm of the holding hand to add pressure to the blade while stabbing. A kris only offers minimal protection for the hand by the broad blade at the hilt. In rare cases, the blade may be forged so its axis lies at an angle to the hilt’s axis. The intention is to get the blade automatically turning to slip past the ribs but this works poorly and makes the weapon less durable.

In battle, a fighter carried three kris: his own, one from his father-in-law, and one as a family heirloom. The extra two served as parrying daggers but if none were available, the sheath would serve the same purpose.

Cultural beliefs

Barong dance performance with kris-wielding dancers and Rangda in Bali

The making of a kris was the specialised duty of metalworkers calledempu or pandai besi. In Bali this occupation was preserved by the Pande clan to this day, members of whom also made jewellery. Kris-makers did more than forge the weapon, they carried out the old rituals which could infuse the blade with mystical powers. For this reason, kris are considered almost alive because they may be vessels of spirits, either good or evil. Legends tell of kris that could move of their own volition and killed individuals at will. Some kris are rumored to stand upright when their real names are called by their masters.

Below Pictures of Keris stand by itself : (Believe it or not)

It was said that some kris helped prevent fires, death, agricultural failure, and many other problems. Likewise, they could also bring fortune, such as bountiful harvests. Many of these beliefs, however, were erroneously derived from the possession of different kris by different people. For example, there is a type of kris in Java that was called Beras Wutah, which was believed to grant its possessor an easy life without famine. In reality, this kris was mainly assigned to government officers that were paid, in whole or in part with foodstuff such as rice.

There are several ways of testing whether a kris is lucky or not. A series of cuts on a leaf, based on blade width and other factors, could determine if a blade was good or bad. Also, if the owner slept with the blade under their pillow, the spirit of the kris would communicate with the owner via dream. If the owner had a bad dream, the blade was unlucky and had to be discarded, whereas if the owner had a good dream the dagger would bring good fortune. However, just because a blade was bad for one person didn’t mean it would be bad for another. Harmony between the weapon and its owner was critical.

Because some kris are considered sacred and believed to possess magical powers, specific rites needed to be completed to avoid calling down evil fates which is the reason warriors often made offerings to their kris at a shrine. There is also the belief that pointing a kris at someone means they will die soon, so silatpractitioners precede their demonstrations by touching the points of the blades to the ground so as to neutralise this effect.

Ken Arok

One of the most famous legends from Java describes a legendary bladesmith called Mpu Gandring and his impatient customer, Ken Arok. The customer ordered a powerful kris to kill the chieftain of Tumapel, Tunggul Ametung. Ken Arok eventually stabbed the old bladesmith to death because he kept delaying the scheduled completion of the kris. Dying, the bladesmith prophesied that the unfinished or incomplete kris would kill seven men, including Ken Arok. The prophecy finally came true, with four men enlisted as the kris’ first death roll, including Mpu Gandring himself, Tunggul Ametung, Kebo Ijo to whom Ken Arok lent the weapon, and finally Ken Arok himself. The unfinished kris then disappeared.

Another version of the tale describes that the kris passed to Ken Arok‘s stepson Anusapati which in turn killed his stepfather after recognized that his genuine father was killed by Ken Arok with the same kris. The bloody revenge continued on and on until the reign ofKertanegara, the last king of Singhasari kingdom.


Another Javanese folk story tells of Arya Penangsang, who was killed by his own keris. The scene happened at the end of a battle to re-unite the collapsed kingdom of Demak-Bintara, fought between Jaka Tingkir of Pajang and Penangsang, of Majapahit royalty. The story tells that he fought the battle with Hadiwijaya‘s adopted son, who would become the first ruler of the Mataram dynasty, Danang Sutawijaya. Penangsang inadvertently stabbed himself when he sheathed his keris, gutting his own belly. He soon fell down, bathing in his own blood, which was flowing from the wound. While he was dying, he encircled his scattered intestines on his keris. The tradition of putting a jasmine chain around the kris’ hilt might have come from this tale.

Tosanaji Keris
Indonesian Blades

Here you will find photographs of Indonesian talismanic weapons.

These are not weapons in any sense other than being weapons to guard against misfortune, they are not weapons intended
to be used against humanity.

In a sense, this could probably be called a “non-information” page. Not enough is known about these items of wesi aji to allow
a definitive discourse on them. My purpose in making these photos available is to assist researchers in this field.

The items hereunder that resemble a keris are known as “keris sajen” in Indonesia, and by many collectors in the western
world as “keris Majapahit“. The keris sajen is reportedly a keris used in offerings, notably the ceremony of bersih desa which
is carried out after the major rice harvest (panen raya). Dates for the harvest can vary, and each village has its own day and
own requirements for bersih desa, so offerings can change from village to village.

In the ceremonies I have seen, no keris sajen has been used. Suryo Negoro in his book “Javanese Traditional and Ritual
Ceremonies”  describes  the general form of bersih desa and mentions two other forms specific to individual villages.
Nowhere does he describe the inclusion of a keris in these ceremonies. Bambang Harsrinuksmo in “Ensiklopedi Keris” claims
use of this keris form in the ceremony of bersih desa, and other writers have also claimed this. It is possible that some
villages could have the requirement for a keris sajen to be included in the ceremony and other villages not have this

David van Duuren  records that in the colonial days, these small keris were known as talismanic weapons.

My own observance has been that present day Javanese regard them as talismanic objects.

At the present time insufficient research has been carried out in relation to this form of wesi aji to allow any certain
definition of their place in Indonesian or Javanese culture.

In respect of the age of keris sajen in general, and this is also true of the examples shown here , it is not possible to be at all
certain of how old any particular item may be. The form is clearly an ancient one, and an example was found under the
central stupa of Candi Borobudur during its restoration, however, whether it was placed there at the time Borobudur was
built, or at a later date, we do not know. However, although ancient, it is doubtful if the form can be linked to Dongson
daggers with similar handles. The time gap between Dongson culture and early classical Javanese culture is too great.

Some writers have attempted to classify this form of wesi aji into types and sub-types, and wish to make true weapons of
the longer examples of the keris sajen. I do not intend to attempt any such classification. Too little is known of these objects
for such a classification to be of very much use. The design of the gonjo of the longer examples would seem to indicate that
these were not intended for use as a real weapon, any more than was the shorter version. Anybody using one of these long
examples as a weapon would be likely to do severe injury to their own hand, because of the narrowness of the gonjo.

I think it is highly probable that the alternate keris sajen as in #’s 15, 17, 18, 19, 20, were forged from recycled old keris
blades. Further, I believe that recycled old keris blades were sometimes used in the manufacture of certain other talismanic
keris, those with the handle forge welded to the base of the blade.  Whether this was done simply as a use of recycled
material, whether to preserve a valued blade, whether to save costs, or for all these reasons, we have no way of knowing.

Apart from those items of wesi aji that are positively identifiable as keris sajen, a number of other items of talismanic wesi aji
are also shown here. Some are keris-like, with the handle in a different plane to the blade, one is of cunderik form.

I regret that I am unable to provide more information  on these talismanic objects, however, I am open to questions or
discussion in respect of them.

Additional Indonesian talismanic blades will be made available for viewing at a later date.

1. A more or less conventional keris form, the handle forged from the same billet as the
blade, but with the width of the gonjo too narrow to allow effective use as a weapon.
Pamor construction with blade core,Overall length:-  345mm, (13½”)

  1. a,b,c


2. A longer than usual example , the handle of a relatively simple form, a forging flaw
in the blade base. Construction is of veined iron, Overall length:- 315mm, (12½”).(Pictures 2a,b,c) :

3. Another long example. The handle possibly forge welded to the blade. The blade is
of pamor construction with a steel core, but the handle does not show any line of a steel
inclusion, and there is an overlapping layer of material in the sorsoran that differs from
the material in the blade,Overall length:- 370mm, (14½”).

4. A very scarce waved example with nine wave blade. Possibly construction uses a
steel core, but because of uncleaned condition this is difficult to be certain of at the
present time. The handle appears to be forged from the same billet as the blade,Overall length:-  325mm, (12¾”)

For Further detail please visit :

Name of the Regional Special Weapons Traditional Indigenous National Culture – Culture Nusantara Indonesia

1. DI Aceh province / the Aceh Darussalam / NAD
Traditional Weapons: Rencong
2. Province of North Sumatra / North Sumatra
Traditional Weapons: Surit Piso, Piso Gaja densely packed

3. West Sumatra Province / West Sumatra
Traditional Weapons: Karih, Ruduih, barb


4. Riau Province
Traditional Weapons: Swords JenaWi, Badik Mash Lado


5. Jambi Province
Traditional Weapons: Pepper Mash Badik (Badik Tumbuk Lada)


6. South Sumatra Province / South Sumatra

Traditional Weapons: Spear Trisula

7. Lampung Province

Traditional Weapons: Terapang, Pehduk Payan

8. Bengkulu Province
Traditional Weapons: neck, Badik, Rudus
9. DKI Jakarta Province
Traditional Weapons: Badik, Parang, Machete
10. West Java Province / Jabar
Traditional Weapons: Kujang

11. Central Java Province / Central Java
Traditional Weapons: Keris
12. Province of Yogyakarta / Yogyakarta / Jogjakarta
Traditional Weapons: Keris Jogjakarta
13. Province of East Java / East Java
Traditional Weapons: sickle
14. Bali Province
Traditional Weapons: Keris
15. West Nusa Tenggara Province / NTB
Traditional Weapons: Keris, Sampari, Sondi
16. East Nusa Tenggara Province / NTT
Traditional Weapons: Sundu
17. West Kalimantan Province / Kalbar
Traditional Weapons: Mandau


18. Central Kalimantan Province / Kalteng
Traditional Weapons: Mandau, Lunjuk Randu Chopsticks
19. South Kalimantan Province / South Kalimantan
Traditional Weapons: Keris, Bujak pickaxe
20. Province of East Kalimantan / Kalimantan
Traditional Weapons: Mandau
21. North Sulawesi Province / North Sulawesi
Traditional Weapons: Keris, bike, Sabel
22. Central Sulawesi Province / Central Sulawesi
Traditional Weapons: Pasatimpo
23. Sulawesi Tenggara / Southeast Sulawesi
Traditional Weapons: Keris
24. South Sulawesi Province / South Sulawesi
Traditional Weapons: Badik

25. Maluku Province
Traditional Weapons: Machete Salawaki / salawaku, Kalawai
26. Province of Irian Jaya / Papua
Traditional Weapons: Knife Dagger
27. Province of East Timor / East Timor
Traditional Weapon: Machete


Rencong Aceh :

Calling the weapons of the people of Aceh, in addition to guns and firearms, the most famous is Rencong. In fact, one of Aceh’s land titles known as “Land Rencong”.

Rencong or some are calling it reuncong, is a traditional weapon of Acehnese society. Aceh has the form seperli Rencong letter [L] or more precisely like calligraphy bismillah.Rencong included in the category of dagger or knife (not a knife or sword).

Historically, rencong have levels. First, rencong used by the king or sultan. Rencong is usually made of ivory (sarong) and pure gold (the dagger). Second, rencong-rencong a common sheath made of buffalo horn or wood, while the dagger of brass or white metal. In general, there are four kinds of rencong which became the mainstay weapon of Acehnese society.

1. Rencong Meucugek. Called meucugek rencong because the handle there is a form of archery and glue that in terms of Aceh called cugekor meucugek. Cugek is needed to easily held and not easily separated when stabbed into the body of the opponent or enemy.

2. Rencong Meupucok. Rencong has a bud on top of the handle is made of metal engraving in general of gold. The handle of this meupucok rencong seem rather small, namely at the bottom of the handle. However, getting to the end of the handle is getting bigger. Type rencong this kind are used for decoration or as a means of jewelry. Usually, this rencong used at official ceremonies associated with masaalah customs and art.

3. Rencong Pudoi. Rencong this type of handle is shorter and straight-shaped, unlike the rencong general. Impressed, rencong is not yet perfect so that said pudoi. The termpudoi in Acehnese society is something that is considered still shortages or still exist that have not been perfect.

4. Rencong Meukuree. Differences rencong meukuree with other rencong type is in the eye. Eye rencong this type were given a specific decoration such as pictures of snakes, centipedes, flowers, and so forth. The images are interpreted by a blacksmith with various kinds of advantages and privileges. Rencong stored long, initially will be formed similar aritan or form called kuree. The longer or the older the age of a rencong, the more kureecontained on these rencong eye. Kuree isdeemed to have magical powers.

Traditional House of Indonesia

Posted in CULTURE of Indonesia on November 16, 2011 by 2eyeswatching

Traditional House of Indonesia

Rumah Adat/Traditional House of  Aceh (Above & Below)

Rumah Bolon Simalungun

Rumah Karo :

Rumah Adat Sumatra Barat

Rumah Adat Sumatra Selatan


Rumah Adat Bungo Jambi

Rumah Adat Bengkulu :

Rumah Adat Riau :

Rumah Adat Lampung :

Rumah Adat Lampung :

Rumah Adat Betawi :

Rumah Adat Jawa :


Rumah Adat Jawa Barat



Rumah Adat Kalimantan Barat :

Rumah Adat Kalimantan Tengah :


Rumah Adat Kalimantan Selatan


Rumah Adat Kalimantan Timur :

Rumah Adat Sulawesi Utara

Rumah Adat Sulawesi Tengah


Rumah Adat Sulawesi Tenggara



Rumah Adat Sulawesi Selatan – Bugis

Rumah Adat Sulawesi Selatan – Toraja di Desa Pangli :


Rumah Adat Bali; SumbaNusa Tenggara Timur,

Rumah Adat Nusa Tenggara Timur

Rumah Adat Nusa Tenggara Barat,

Rumah Adat  Maluku

=======Rumah Adat Papua :

Jepara (Central Java) Wood Carving Art.

Posted in CULTURE of Indonesia on November 16, 2011 by 2eyeswatching

Jepara (Central Java) Wood Carving Art

JEPARA, a place where carving-art was born and becomes the advantage-characteristic of Jepara. Talented carver generations has been appearing naturally since XVI century on the village, the sources of inspiration, as well as the centre of learning for others all around Jepara. (read : the endless forest ) has been growing since 1960’s in the local original colour, inspired by the native carvers of Jepara. creations are made by optimizing woods (roots, braches), without damaging or wasting natural forest. Through the importers from USA, English, Korea, China, Kuwait, Spain, Germany, Malaysia, Singapore, and some others our products have been widely spreading. Our production capacity is willing to serve customers by certain quality, quantity, and continuity. Supporting by a lot of material, skillful carvers, and located on the center of carving home industri We create one of a kind artwork and sculpture masterworks in :
ROOT ARTS CARVED many of which are replicas of rare pieces. We offer original carvings, supreme statues and decorative sculptures and artwork crafted by genius JAVA and JEPARA artists. Custom commissioned designs, replicas and sculpture fabrication is available on request. Sculpture Arts: Ancient Greeks’ depiction of ideal form of the body is expressed through sculpture such as this one. Sculpture is any three-dimensional form created as an artistic expression. The term sculpture also refers to the artistic discipline, act or art of making sculpture, by the manipulation of materials or, in contemporary art, by designating an object or even an act as sculpture.
Relief Carving

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Last Supper

Relief Carving

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Relief Carving

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Relief Carving

Relief Carving

Relief Carving

Relief Carving

Relief Carving

Relief Carving

Relief Carving

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Relief Carving

Relief Carving

Relief Carving

Relief Carving

Relief Carving

Relief Carving

Relief Carving

People Kanekes/ Baduy Tribe of Banten (West Java)

Posted in CULTURE of Indonesia on November 16, 2011 by 2eyeswatching

People Kanekes/Suku Baduy

Indonesian From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia and others.


Kanekes person or persons Baduy is a group of indigenous Sundanese in Lebak regencyBanten. The term “Bedouin” is the name given by residents outside the community groups, the researchers started with the name Holland who seems to equate them with a group of Arab Badawi who is sedentary society (nomads). Another possibility is that because of the River and Mountain Bedouin Bedouin in the northern part of the region. They themselves prefer to call themselves as urang Kanekes or “people Kanekes” according to their region name, or title that refers to the name of their village as Urang Cibeo (Garna, 1993).


Kanekes region is geographically located at coordinates 6 ° 27’27 “- 6 ° 30’0″ latitude and 108 ° 3’9 “- 106 ° 4’55″ BT (Permana, 2001).They live right at the foot of the mountains in the village Kendeng Kanekes, District LEUWIDAMAR,-Rangkasbitung Lebak, Banten, located about 40 km from the city Rangkasbitung. Areas that are part of Kendeng Mountains with an altitude of 300-600 m above sea level (DPL) has the hilly and undulating topography with an average slope of the soil reaches 45%, which is a volcanic soil (in the north), soil sediment (in the middle), and soil mixture (in the south). average temperature 20 ° C.


The language they use is Bahasa Sunda Sunda-Banten dialect. To communicate with people outside of their current use Indonesian language, although they do not get that knowledge from school. People Kanekes ‘in’ do not know the culture of writing, so that the customs, beliefs / religion, and ancestor stories stored only in oral speech only.


According to the beliefs that they profess, people Kanekes claimed descent from ancestors Batara, one of the seven gods or a god who is sent to earth. The origin is often attributed to the Prophet Adam as the first ancestor. According to their belief, Adam and his descendants, including the citizen has the duty Kanekes be imprisoned or ascetic (mandita) to maintain the harmony of the world.

Opinions about the origin of the Kanekes differ with the opinion of historians, who based his opinion by way of synthesis of some historical evidence in the form of inscriptions, travel records of Portuguese and Chinese sailors, and folklore of the ‘Tatar Sunda’, which was minimal existence. Community Kanekes associated with the Kingdom of Sunda that before its collapse in the 16th centurycentered on Pakuan Pajajaran (around Bogor now). Before the founding of the Sultanate of Banten, the western tip of Java island is an important part of the Kingdom of Sunda. Banten is a fairly large trading port. Ciujung River are navigable various types of boats, and crowded is used to transport agricultural products from rural areas. Thus the ruler area, which is called the Prince of shoot General considers that the sustainability of the river should be maintained. For that diperintahkanlah royal army that is trained to maintain and manage the heavily wooded and hilly area in the region of Mount Kendeng. The presence of troops with special duties is likely to become the embryo of Bedouin society that still inhabit the upper river at Mount Kendeng Ciujung the (Adimihardja, 2000). Differences of opinion was brought to the allegation that in the past, their historical identity and accidentally closed, which probably is to protect the Bedouin community itself from attack enemies Pajajaran.

one of the streams we passed

Van Tricht, a physician who had conducted health research in 1928, refuting the theory. According to him, the Bedouin is a native of the area which has a strong thrust towards external influences (Garna, 1993b: 146). Baduy own people even refuse to say that they come from people escape from Pajajaran oraang, the capital of the Kingdom of Sunda. According Danasasmita and Djatisunda (1986: 4-5) is the local Bedouin people who made the mandala ‘(sacred area) formally by the king, because the population is obliged to maintain kabuyutan (place of ancestor worship or ancestor), rather than Hinduism or Buddhism. Principal in this area known as Jati Sunda kabuyutan or ‘Sunda Asli’ or Sundanese wiwitan (wiwitann = original, origin, principal, teak). Hence their original religion was given the name Sunda wiwitan. The king who makes the Bedouin as a mandala is Rakeyan Darmasiksa.

There is another version of history Baduy tribe, started when Indiana Jones King Siliwangi son came home from arabia after berislam in the hands of Sayyidina Ali. The son wanted to convert the King and his followers. At the end of the story, with ‘wangsit Siliwangi’ received by the King, they object to convert to Islam, and spread to all corners sunda to remain in his conviction. And King Siliwangi chased down to the lowland areas (Baduy now), and hide until abandoned. Then the King in the area Baduy is renamed with a new title King Kencana Wungu, which may have changed its title again. And in Baduy dalamlah King Siliwangi enthroned with 40 loyal followers, so until the day would be civil war between them and us is represented by ki Saih a human form but the whole body and face covered with feathers monyet.dan ki Like this Saih presence in we are at the request of the guardian to God for winning the truth.


Kanekes public trust which is called the Sunda wiwitan rooted in the worship of ancestral spirits (animism) which on subsequent development was also influenced by BuddhismHinduism, and Islam. The core belief is shown by the absolute pikukuh or customary provisions adopted in the daily life of people Kanekes (Garna, 1993). The most important contents of the ‘pikukuh’ (compliance) Kanekes is the concept of “without any changes, or changes in as little as possible:

Lojor heunteu beunang cut, short-jointed heunteu beunang.

(Length can not / should not be cut, the short can not / should not be connected)

Taboo in everyday life are interpreted literally. In the field of agriculture, forms pikukuh is by not changing the contour of the land for the fields, so how berladangnya very simple, do not cultivate the land with a plow, do not create a terracing, planted only with Portugal, which is a piece of bamboo sharpened. In housing construction also contour the ground surface is left untouched, so that a pillar of the house Kanekes often not equal in length. Words and their actions were honest, innocent, without further ado, even in their trade did not haggle.


the bamboo bridge and the village on top of the hill (can you see it?)

Outer Baduy village

The object of trust is important for the community Kanekes Arca Domas, the location kept secret and is considered the most sacred.Kanekes people visit these locations to conduct worship once a year in Kalima, which in 2003 coincided with the month of July. Onlypuun which is the highest indigenous chairman and several members of selected communities that follow the cult group. In the complex there are Arca Domas stone mortar that holds rain water. If at the temple was found a stone mortar is in a state full of clear water, then for the people Kanekes it is a sign that the rain of the year will be a lot down, and harvest will be successful. Conversely, if the stone mortar dry or watery cloudy, it is a sign of crop failure (Permana, 2003a).

For some people, related to the persistence society, indigenous beliefs embraced this Kanekes reflect the religious beliefs of Sundanese people in general prior to the entry of Islam.

Baduy family

clove harvest

The groups in society Kanekes

Community Kanekes generally divided into three groups: tangtupanamping, and dangka (Permana, 2001). Group tangtuis a group known as Baduy In, the most strictly follow the customs, the people living in three villages: Cibeo, Cikartawana, and Cikeusik). Typical Bedouin man is dressed in white, natural and dark blue and wearing a white headband. Community groups panamping are those known as the Outer Baduy, who lived in various villages scattered around the region Baduy In such Cikadu, Kaduketuk, Kadukolot, Gajeboh, Cisagu, and so forth. Outer Baduy distinctively dressed and black headband. If Baduy In and Out Bedouin living in the region Kanekes, the “Bedouin Dangka” Kanekes live outside the region, and currently lives in the remaining two villages, namely Padawaras (Cibengkung) and Sirahdayeuh (Cihandam). Kampung Dangka functions as a kind of buffer zone on outside influences (Permana, 2001).

baduy women doing activities at the river

Outer Baduy

Outer Baduy are people who have come out of customs and territory Baduy In. There are several things that cause people dikeluarkanya Baduy In the Outer Baduy. Basically, the existing regulations on the outside and Baduy Baduy in it almost the same, but outside Baduy more familiar with technology than Baduy deep.


  • They have violated customary Baduy In.
  • Desiring to get out of Baduy In
  • Married to a member of the Outer Baduy

The characteristics of community

  • They have known technologies, such as electronic equipment, although its use remains a ban for every citizen Bedouin, including citizens of Outer Baduy. They use the equipment in a way secretly to escape detection from Baduy In watchdog.
  • Bedouin population in the Development Process House Foreign been using assistive devices, such as saws, hammers, nails, etc., that were previously prohibited by the indigenous Bedouin In.
  • Using traditional clothes with black or dark blue (for men), indicating that they are not sacred. Sometimes using modern clothes such as T-shirts and jeans.
  • Using modern household appliances, such as mattresses, pillows, plates & cups glass & plastic.
  • They live outside the area Baduy In.

Inner Bedouin/Suku Baduy Dalam

Baduy In is part of the whole Bedouin tribe. Unlike the Outer Baduy, Bedouin residents still adhere to the customs of their ancestors.

Most of the rules adopted by the Bedouin tribes in include:

  • Not allowed to use vehicles for transportation
  • Not allowed to use footwear
  • The door should face north / south (except the house Puun)
  • Prohibition of use of electronic tools (technology)
  • Using fabrics are black / white as the clothes that are woven and sewn himself, and not allowed to use modern clothing.


Kanekes society recognizes two systems of government, namely the national system, which follows the rules of the Unitary Republic of Indonesia, and systems that follow the traditional customs that the community trusted. Both systems were merged or diakulturasikan such a way that does not happen clash. Nationally, the population Kanekes led by the village head called Jaro pamarentah, which is under the sub-district, while customarily subject to the customary leader Kanekes the highest, namely “puun”. Kanekes customary governance structures are as shown in Figure 1.

The highest indigenous leaders in the community Kanekes is “puun” in three villages tangtu. Position lasted down through the generations, but not automatically from father to son, but can also other relatives. The term of office puun not specified, only based on one’s ability to hold the position.

Executing everyday customs administration kapuunan (kepuunan) implemented by Jaro, which is divided into four positions, namelytangtu JaroJaro dangkaJaro dependents, and Jaro pamarentahJaro tangturesponsible for the implementation of customary law on citizens tangtuand various kinds of affairs others. Jaro dangka duty to maintain, administer, and maintain a deposit of ancestral land that exist within and outside Kanekes. Jaro dangka of 9 people, which when added to the 3 people Jaro tangtu called Jaro twelve.Leaders of these twelve Jaro called Jaro dependents. The Jaro pamarentah customarily served as a liaison between indigenous Kanekes with national governments, which in their duties aided by pangiwatorn, and kokolot overtime or village elders (Makmur, 2001).


As has happened for hundreds of years, the community’s main livelihood is farming Kanekes cultivating rice. In addition they also receive additional income from selling fruit they get in the forest such as durian and keranji acid, and honey forest


Interaction with the outside community

Kanekes society that until now strictly follow the customs is not an isolated communities, remote or isolated communities from the development of the outside world. The establishment of the Sultanate of Banten , which automatically enter into the realm Kanekes was not separated from their consciousness. As a sign of compliance / confession to authorities, the public routinely perform Kanekes sebato the Sultanate of Banten (Garna, 1993). Until now, the ceremony seba continues to take place once a year, be brought crops (rice, pulses, fruits) to the Governor of Banten (previously the Governor of West Java), through the Regent of Lebak regency. In agriculture, the population of Outer Baduy interact closely with the community outside, for example in a lease of land, and labor.

Trade that in the past conducted barter, now has used ordinary rupiah currency. People Kanekes sell their fruits, honey, and sugar kawung / palm through the middlemen. They also buy the necessities of life that are not produced in the market. Market for people located outside the territory Kanekes Kanekes like Kroja market, Cibengkung, and Ciboleger.

At this time the outsiders who visit the region Kanekes increasing up to hundreds of people per visit, usually a teenager from the school, students, and other adult visitors. They receive the visitors, even to stay one night, with the proviso that visitors comply with the customs prevailing there. Customary rules, among others, should not be photographed in the region Baduy In, do not use soap or toothpaste in a river. However, the region Kanekes remain off limits to foreigners (non-citizen). Several foreign journalists who tried to enter until now always been denied entry.

At work in the fields is not too much, people Baduy also happy to travel to major cities around the area on condition that they must walk. Generally they go in small groups consisting of 3 to 5 people, a visit to the house of acquaintances who had come to the Bedouin as he sells honey and handicrafts. During the visit they usually get extra money for their daily lives.

ordinary day in Baduy


Outer Baduy village


Adimihardja, K. (2000). Bedouin people in the South Banten ‘Man River water keeper, Indonesia Journal of Anthropology, Th. XXIV, No.61, Jan-April 2000, p. 47-59.

Garna, Y. (1993). Bedouin community in Banten, in Isolated Communities in Indonesia, Editor: Koentjaraningrat & Simorangkir, Indonesia Ethnography Series No.4. Jakarta: Ministry of Social Affairs and the Indonesian National Council for Social Welfare by Gramedia Pustaka Utama.

Iskandar, J. (1991). An evaluation of the shifting cultivation systems of the Bedouin society in West Java using the system modeling, Thesis Abstract of AGS Students, [1].

Makmur, A. (2001). Pamarentahan Kanekes Bedouin Village: Perspectives of kinship, [2].

Nugraheni, E. & Winata, A. (2003). Environmental conservation and plasma nutfah according to traditional wisdom Kasepuhan Mountain Mist, Journal of Indonesian Studies, Volume 13, Number 2, September 2003, pages 126-143.

Permana, CE (2001). Gender equality in the core universe Bedouin custom, London: Wedatama Widya Sastra.

Permana, CE (2003). Arca Domas Bedouin: A reference in the interpretation of archaeological megalithic community space, Indonesian Arheology on the Net, [3]

Permana, CE (2003). Religion in the tradition of simple farming, Indonesian Arheology on the Net, [4]

Balinese Art.

Posted in CULTURE of Indonesia on November 16, 2011 by 2eyeswatching

Balinese art

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia and Others

Balinese art is art of HinduJavanese origin that grew from the work of artisans of the Majapahit Kingdom, with their expansion to Bali in the late 13th century. From the sixteenth until the twentieth centuries, the village of Kamasan, Klungkung (East Bali), was the centre of classical Balinese art. During the first part of the twentieth century, new varieties of Balinese art developed. Since the late twentieth century, Ubud and its neighboring villages established a reputation as the center of Balinese art. Ubud and Batuan are known for their paintings, Mas for their woodcarvings, Celuk for gold and silver smiths, and Batubulan for their stone carvings. Covarrubias describes Balinese art as, “… a highly developed, although informal Baroque folk art that combines the peasant liveliness with the refinement of classicism of Hinduistic Java, but free of the conservative prejudice and with a new vitality fired by the exuberance of the demonic spirit of the tropical primitive.” Eiseman correctly pointed out that Balinese art is actually carved, painted, woven, and prepared into objects intended for everyday use rather than asobject d ‘art.

Recent history

Prior to 1920s, Balinese traditional paintings were restricted to what is now known as the Kamasan or Wayang style. It is a visual narrative of Hindu-Javanese epics: the Ramayana and Mahabharata, as well as a number of indigenous stories, such as the Panji narrative. These two-dimensional drawings are traditionally drawn on cloth or bark paper (Ulantaga paper) with natural dyes. The coloring is limited to available natural dyes: red, ochre, black, etc. In addition, the rendering of the figures and ornamentations must follow strictly prescribed rules, since they are mostly produced for religious articles and temple hangings. These paintings are produced collaboratively, and therefore mostly anonymously.

There were many experiments with new types of art by Balinese from the late nineteenth century onwards. These experiments were stimulated by access to new materials (western paper and imported inks and paint), and by the 1930s, new tourist markets stimulated many young Balinese to be involved in new types of art.

In the 1920s, with the arrival of many western artists, Bali became an artist enclave (as Tahiti was for Paul Gauguin) for avant-garde artists such as Walter Spies (German), Rudolf Bonnet (Dutch), Adrien-Jean Le Mayeur (Belgian), Arie Smit (Dutch) and Donald Friend (Australian) in more recent years. Most of these western artists had very little influence on the Balinese until the post-World War Two period, although some accounts over-emphasise the western presence at the expense of recognising Balinese creativity.

On his first visit to Bali in 1930, the Mexican artist Miguel Covarrubiasnoted that local paintings served primarily religious or ceremonial functions. They were used as decorative cloths to be hung in temples and important houses, or as calendars to determine children’s horoscopes. Yet within a few years, he found the art form had undergone a “liberating revolution.” Where they had once been severely restricted by subject (mainly episodes from Hindu mythology) and style, Balinese artists began to produce scenes from rural life. These painters had developed increasing individuality.

This groundbreaking period of creativity reached a peak in the late 1930s. A stream of famous visitors, including Charlie Chaplin and theanthropologists Gregory Bateson and Margaret Mead, encouraged the talented locals to create highly original works. During their stay in Bali in mid 1930s, Bateson and Mead collected over 2000 paintings, predominantly from the village of Batuan, but also from the coastal village of Sanur. Among western artists, Spies and Bonnet are often credited for the modernization of traditional Balinese paintings. From the 1950s onwards Baliese artists incorporated aspects of perspective and anatomy from these artists.  More importantly, they acted as agents of change by encouraging experimentation, and promoted departures from tradition. The result was an explosion of individual expression that increased the rate of change in Balinese art. The 1930s styles were consolidated in the 1950s, and in more recent years have been given the confusing title of “modern traditional Balinese painting”. The Ubud painters, although a minority amongst the artists working in the 1930s, became the representatives of the new style thanks to the presence of the great artist Gusti Nyoman Lempad in that village, and to the patronage of the traditional rulers of Ubud. The key points of the Ubud Style included a concentration on the depiction of daily Bali life and drama; the change of the patron of these artists from the religious temples and royal houses to western tourists/collectors; shifting the picture composition from multiple to single focus. Despite the adoption of modern western painting traditions by many Balinese and Indonesianpainters, “modern traditional Balinese painting” is still thriving and continues by descendants/students of the artists of the pre-war modernist era (1928-1942). The schools of modern traditional Balinese painting include: Ubud, Batuan, Sanur, Young Artist and Keliki schools of painting.

Modern traditional painting

The pre-War modernisation of Bainese art emanated from three villages: Ubud, where Spies settled, Sanur on the southern coast, and Batuan, a traditional hub of musicians, dancers, carvers and painters. The artists painted mostly on paper, though canvas and board were also used. Often, the works featured repetitive clusters of stylized foliage or waves that conveyed a sense of texture, even perspective. Each village evolved a style of its own. Ubud artists made more use of open spaces and emphasized human figures. Sanur paintings often featured erotic scenes and animals, and work from Batuan was less colorful but tended to be busier.

Ubud painting


Mask Dancer, A.A. Gde Anom Sukawati (b. 1966), Acrylic on canvas

Ubud has been the center of art for centuries, with the surrounding royal houses and temples as the main patrons. Prior to the 1920s, traditional wayang style paintings dominated the subject matters, although Jean Couteau believes that both secular and religious theme paintings have long been co-existing in the form of the expression of the unity of opposites (Rwabhinneda in Balinese belief system).

Under the patronage of the Ubud royal family, esepcially Tjokorda Gde Agung Sukawati, and with Rudolf Bonnet as a chief consultant, the Pitamaha Art Guild was founded in 1936 as a way to professionalise Balinese painting. Its mission was to preserve the quality of Balinese Art in the rush of tourism to Bali. The board members of Pitamaha met regularly to select paintings submitted by its members, and to conduct exhibitions throughout Indonesia and abroad. Pitamaha was active until the beginning of the second world war in 1942.The subject matters shifted from religious narration to Balinese daily life. Ubud artists who were members to Pitamaha came from Ubud and its surrounding villages; Pengosekan, Peliatan and Tebasaya. Among them were: Ida Bagus Made Kembeng of the village of Tebesaya and his three sons Ida Bagus Wiri, Ida Bagus Made and Ida Bagus Belawa; Tjokorda Oka of the royal house of Peliatan; Anak Agung Gde Sobrat, Anak Agung Gde Meregeg, I Dewa Putu Bedil, I Dewa Nyoman Leper, Anak Agung Dana of Padangtegal; I Gusti Ketut Kobot, I Gusti Made Baret, I Wayan Gedot, Dewa Putu Mokoh of Pengosekan; and I Gusti Nyoman Lempad. Artists from other areas also participated, including Pan Seken from Kamasan, I Gusti Made Deblog from Denpasar, and some of the Sanur artists.

Pitamaha has been by the descendents of the Ubud artists, and has now come to be identified with the period of the 1930s. Noted Ubudian artists include I Ketut Budiana, I Nyoman Meja, I Nyoman Kayun, A.A. Gde Anom Sukawati, I Gusti Agung Wiranata, and Ida Bagus Sena

Batuan painting

The Batuan school of painting is practiced by artists in the village of Batuan, which is situated ten kilometers to the South of Ubud. The Batuan artisans are gifted dancers, sculptors and painters. Leading artists of the 1930s included I Nyoman Ngendon, and a number of members of leading brahman families, including Ida Bagus Made Togog. Other major Batuan artists from the pre-modernist era include I Dewa Nyoman Mura (1877-1950) and I Dewa Putu Kebes (1874-1962), who were known as sanging; traditional Wayang-style painters for temples’ ceremonial textiles.

The western influence in Batuan did not reach the intensity it had in Ubud. According to Claire Holt, the Batuan paintings were often dark, crowded representations of either legendary scenes or themes from daily life, but they portrayed above all fearsome nocturnal moments when grotesque spooks, freakish animal monsters, and witches accosted people. This is particularly true for paintings collected by Margaret Mead and Gregory Bateson during their field studies in Bali in 1936 to 1939.Gradations of black to white ink washes laid over most of the surface, so as to create an atmosphere of darkness and gloom. In the later years, the designs covered the entire space, which often contributed to the crowded nature of these paintings.


The Wheel of Life, I Ketut Murtika (b. 1952), Gouache on canvas

Among the early Batuan artists, I Ngendon (1903-1946) was considered the most innovative Batuan School painter.Ngendon was not only a good painter, but a shrewd business man and political activist. He encouraged and mobilized his neighbours and friends to paint for tourist consumption. His ability in portraiture played an important role in teaching his fellow villagers in Batuan more than Spies and Bonnet. The major Batuan artists from this period were: I Patera (1900-1935), I Tombos (b. 1917), Ida Bagus Togog (1913-1989), Ida Bagus Made Jatasura (1917-1946), Ida Bagus Ketut Diding (1914-1990), I Made Djata (1920-2001), and Ida Bagus Widja (1912-1992). The spirit of the Pitamaha period is still strong and continues by contemporary Batuan Artists such as I Made Budi , I Wayan Bendi (b. 1950), I Ketut Murtika (b. 1952), I Made Sujendra (b. 1964), and many others. I Made Budi and I Wayan Bendi paintings capture the influence of tourism in modern life in Bali. They place tourists with their camera, riding a motorbike or surfing in the midst of Balinese traditional village activities. The dichotomy of modern and traditional Balinese life are contrasted starkly in harmony. I Ketut Murtika ( still paints the traditional story of Mahabharata and Ramayana in a painstaking details with subdued colors. His painting of the Wheel of Life viewed from the Balinese beliefs system shows his mastery of local legends and painstaking attention to details. I Made Sujendra, an art teacher at a local art school, depicts old Balinese folklore with a modern eye and a high degree of individuality. Rejecting excessive decoration and relying on the composition itself, I Made Sujendra is successful in depicting tensions in his work and the old Batuan style of 1930s.

Sanur painting

File:Ida Bagus Rai Beached Whale.jpg

Beached Whale, Ida Bagus Nyoman Rai, Ink wash on canvas

Unlike Ubud and Batuan which are located in the inland of Bali, Sanur is a beach resort. Sanur was the home of the well known Belgian artist Le Mayeur de Mepres, who lived with a Balinese wife (Ni Polok) and had a beach house in Sanur beach.

Tourists in 1930s came to Bali on cruise ships docked in Sanur and made side trips to Ubud and neighboring tourist sites. Its prime location provided the Sanur artist with ready-access to Western tourists who frequented the shop of the Neuhaus Brothers who sold balinese souvenirs and tropical fishes. Neuhaus brothers became the major art dealer of Sanur paintings. The beach around Sanur, full of outriggers and open horizon, provided local artists with a visual environment different from the Ubud and Batuan, which are located in the hinterland.The playful atmosphere pervades the Sanur paintings, and are not dictated by the religious iconography. It is lighter and airy than those of Batuan and Ubud with sea creatures, erotic scenery and wild animals drawn in rhythmic patterns; often in an Escher-like manner.Most early works were black and white ink wash on paper, but at the request of Neuhaus, latter works were adorned with light pastel colors often added by other artists specializing in coloring a black and white drawings. Their name code is often found at the margin.

The Sanur school of painting is the most stylized and decorative among all modern Balinese Art. Major artists from Sanur are I Rundu, Ida Bagus Nyoman Rai, I Soekaria, I Poegoeg, I Rudin, and many others. I Rudin, who started to paint in mid 1930s, draws simple balinese dancers in the manner of the drawings of Miguel Covarrubias.

Young Artist painting

The development of the Young Artist School of painting is attributed to the Dutch artist Arie Smit, a Dutch soldier who served during the 2nd world war and decided to stay in Bali. In the early 1960s, he came across children in the village of Penestanan near Tjampuhan drawing on the sand. He encouraged these children to paint by providing them with paper and paints.

Their paintings are characterized by “child-like” drawings that lacks details and bright colors drawn with oil paint on canvas. By 1970s, it attracted around three hundred peasant painters to produce paintings for tourists. In 1983, the National Gallery of Malaysia held a major exhibition on the Young Artist paintings from the collection of Datuk Lim Chong Kit.


The snake tree, I Wayan Pugur, Gouache on paper

The painting by I Wayan Pugur (b. 1945) shown here, was executed when he was 13 years old and was exhibited at the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art in 1964, as part of a traveling exhibition in the United States in 1964-1965. This early drawing, executed on paper, exhibits the use of bright colors and a balanced composition. The drawing space is divided into three solid-color areas: dark blue, bright yellow and magenta in between showing the influence of the Wayang painting tradition. The leaves of the large tree with the snakes show the juxtaposition of complementary colors. The faces of the figures were drawn with no details, yet the snakes have eyes and long tongues.

Major artists from the Young Artist School are I Wayan Pugur, I Ketut Soki, I Ngurah KK, I Nyoman Londo, I Ketut Tagen, I Nyoman Cakra, Ni Ketut Gampil, I Nyoman Mundik, I Wayan Regog and many others.
tKeliki miniature painting


Rajapala, I Lunga, Watercolor on paper

In the 1970s, miniature paintings emerged from Keliki, a small village north of Ubud, led by a local farmer I Ketut Sana. The sizes range from as small as 2 x 3 inch to as large as 10 x 15 in. I Ketut Sana learnt to paint from I Gusti Nyoman Sudara Lempad from Ubud and from I Wayan Rajin from Batuan. He combined the line drawing of Lempad and the details of the Batuan school. Every inch of the space is covered with minute details of Balinese village life and legends drawn in ink and colored with watercolor. The outcome is a marriage between the youthfulness of the Ubud school and the details of the Batuan School. The Keliki artists proud with their patience to paint minute details of every objects meticulously that occupy the drawing space.

Illustrated on the left is a drawing by I Lunga (c. 1995) depicting the story of Rajapala. Rajapala is often referred to as the first Balinese voyeur or “peeping Tom.” According to the story, Rajapala catches sight of a group of celestial nymphs bathing in a pool. He approaches stealthily, and without their knowledge, steals the skirt (kamben) of the prettiest, Sulaish. As her clothing contains magical powers enabling her to fly, the nymph cannot return home. Rajapala offers to marry her. She accepts on the condition that she will return to heaven after the birth of a child. With time, she and Rajapala have a healthy young son. Years pass, and one day, Sulaish accidentally discovers her clothing hidden in the kitchen. Understanding that she has been tricked, she takes leave of her husband and son and goes back to her heavenly abode.

Major artists from the Keliki Artist School are Sang Ketut Mandera (Dolit), I Ketut Sana, I Wayan Surana, I Lunga, I Wayan Nengah, I Made Ocen, I Made Widi, I Wayan Lanus, Ida Bagus Putra, Sang Nyoman Kardiana (Sabuh) and many others.

Wood carving


Woodcarving of an elderly Balinese lady (art deco style), c. 1930s

Like the Balinese painting, Balinese wood carving underwent a similar transformation during the 1930s and 1940s. The creative outburst emerged during this transition period is often attributed to western influences. In 2006, an exhibition at the Nusantara Museum, Delft, the Netherlands Leidelmeijer traced the Art Deco influence on Balinese wood carving. Leidelmeijer further conjectured that the Art Deco influence continued well into 1970s.

During the transition years, the Pitamaha Artist Guild was the prime mover not only for Balinese paintings, but also for the development of modern Balinese wood carvings. I Tagelan (1902-1935) produced an elongated carving of a Balinese woman from a long piece of wood that was given by Walter Spies, who originally requested him to produce two statues.This carving is in the collection of the Puri Lukisan Museum in Ubud.


Dewi Gadru by Ida Bagus Tilem, c. 1950s

Other masters of Balinese modernist woodcarving were: Ida Bagus Nyana, Tjokot (1886-1971)and Ida Bagus Tilem.

Ida Bagus Nyana was known for experimenting with mass in sculpture. When carving human characters, he shortened some parts of the body and lengthened others, thus bringing an eerie, surreal quality to his work. At the same time he didn’t overwork the wood and adopted simple, naive themes of daily life. He thus avoided the “baroque” trap, unlike many carvers of his day.

Tjokot gained a reputation for exploiting the expressive quality inherent in the wood. He would go into the forest to look for strangely shaped trunks and branches and, changing them as little as possible, transforming them into gnarled spooks and demonic figures.

Ida Bagus Tilem, the son of Nyana, furthered Nyana and Tjokot’s innovations both in his working of the wood and in his choice of themes. Unlike the sculptors from the previous generation, he was daring enough to alter the proportions of the characters depicted in his carving. He allowed the natural deformations in the wood to guide the form of his carving, using gnarled logs well suited for representing twisted human bodies. He saw each deformed log or branch as a medium for expressing human feelings. Instead of depicting myths or scenes of daily life, Tilem took up “abstract” themes with philosophical or psychological content: using distorted pieces of wood that are endowed with strong expressive powers. Ida Bagus Tilem, however, was not only an artist, but also a teacher. He trained dozens of young sculptors from the area around the village of Mas. He taught them how to select wood for its expressive power, and how to establish dialogue between wood and Man that has become the mainstream of today’s Balinese woodcarving.

Museums holding important Balinese painting collection

There are many museums throughout the world holding a significant collection of Balinese paintings.

  • Europe: In the Netherlands, the Tropenmuseum in Amsterdam and the Ethnographic Museum in Leiden, Museum Nusantara in Delft have a large number of paintings from the Wayang period (before 1920s) and the pre-War period (1920s – 1950s). Notably, the Leiden Ethnographic Museum holds the Rudolf Bonnet and Paul Spies collection. In Switzerland, the Ethnographic Museum in Basel holds the pre-War Batuan and Sanur paintings collected by Schlager and the artist Theo Meier.
  • Asia: In Japan, the Asian Art Museum in Fukuoka holds an excellent Balinese collection after the Second World War. The Singapore National Art Museum has significant collection of pre-War and post-War Balinese paintings.
  • Australia: The Australian Museum, Sydney, has a major collection of Kamasan and other traditional paintings assembled by the Anthropologist Anthony Forge. The National Gallery of Australia in Sydney holds some Balinese works.
  • Indonesia: the Museum Sana Budaya in Yogyakarta and Museum Bentara Budaya in Jakarta. In Bali, pre-war Balinese drawings are at the holdings of the Bali Museum in Denpasar and Center for Documentation of Balinese Culture in Denpasar. In addition, there are four major museums in Ubud, Bali, with significant collections: Museum Puri Lukisan, Agung Rai Museum of Art, Neka Museum and Museum Rudana.
  • America: Duke University Museum in Durham, American Museum of Natural History in New York, United Nations in New York.

Mask of Cirebon

Posted in CULTURE of Indonesia on November 16, 2011 by 2eyeswatching

Masks From Cirebon

Topeng(Mask) Panji          Topeng Rumyang

Topeng Samba                       Topeng Tumenggung

Topeng Kelana

Dedi Sambudi (53 years old) from Gegesik – Cirebon – The Mask Maker

Aerli Rasinah: The new face of the Cirebon mask dance

| Sun, 06/29/2008 10:56 AM | Life

Mimi Rasinah's granddaughter Aerli Rasinah (right) prays at Sunan Gunung Jati's tomb with her mother. Aerli has been given the responsibility to preserve the Cirebon mask dance. (Courtesy of Kamabudaya)

Mimi Rasinah’s granddaughter Aerli Rasinah (right) prays at Sunan Gunung Jati’s tomb with her mother. Aerli has been given the responsibility to preserve the Cirebon mask dance. (Courtesy of Kamabudaya)

Wearing the red mask of Kelana, a character from the traditional Cirebon mask dance, 22-year-old Aerli Rasinah danced vigorously on stage. Stamping her foot and moving her shoulders and hands in time to the percussion, she looked like a brave warrior from a wayang story.

The granddaughter of maestro mask dancer, Mimi Rasinah, 78, had just received the mandate to continue the Cirebon mask dance tradition from Mimi herself.

On stage, in the courtyard of the 16th century Cirebon founder and Islam propagator Sunan Gunung Jati, witnessed by her pupils and hundreds in the audience, Rasinah bestowed her five masks and her blessings to Aerli.

Being born into a family of dancers, Aerli has taken on the great responsibility to preserve the tradition of dance.

“It’s a heavy task. But I’ll try my best,” she said on the back stage, wiping off her sweat after dancing.

Rasinah inherited the skill to dance from her father Lastra. In 2005, she suffered a stroke and is now paralyzed on the left side of her body. She passed on the skills to her daughter and grandchildren.

“This will be my legacy before I die,” Mimi said.

Aerli’s mother, Waci, who has also mastered the Cirebon mask dance, said the family chose Aerli to take on Mimi Rasinah’s responsibilities because Aerli was still young and had lots of time to develop the tradition in the future.

Mimi Rasinah gives her blessing to Aerli Rasinah to continue the tradition of the Cirebon mask dance. (Courtesy of Kamabudaya)

Dancing maestro Mimi Rasinah dead at 80

Nana Rukmana, The Jakarta Post, Cirebon | Sun, 08/08/2010 5:35 PM | Headlines

Mimi Rasinah (

Mimi Rasinah (

Cirebon mask dance maestro Mimi Rasinah died Saturday after suffering a stroke. She was 80.

Hundreds of traditional dancers and pilgrims paid their last respects to the late Mimi at her funeral at Ciweni hamlet public cemetery in Pekandangan village, Indramayu, West Java, on Sunday afternoon.

Many visitors brought to the funeral masks worn by Mimi throughout her career.

Rasinah’s granddaughter Aerli Rasinah, 24, said Mimi passed away at 2 p.m. on Saturday at Indramayu General Hospital.

“When we admitted her to the hospital, she was in a very poor condition. Mimi was treated for about five minutes before she passed away,” she added.


foto festival tari topeng

CIREBON, 17/10 – ITS MASK FESTIVAL 2010. Dancers bring Mask Dance, Dance Single or Ngedok from Jakarta in the evening peak Mask Festival Nusantara 2010, in Cirebon, West Java, on Saturday (16/10). Mask Festival 2010 Nusantara function saw the presence and position of the archipelago in the constellation of art mask Indonesian arts and culture. AFP PHOTO / Rosa Panggabean/ed/pd/10.

foto festival tari topeng