Archive for November, 2012

Shipwrecks Gallery: Secrets of the Deep

Posted in UNDERWATER ARCHAEOLOGY with tags on November 30, 2012 by 2eyeswatching

Post 1468

Shipwrecks Gallery: Secrets of the Deep

Remy Melina, LiveScience Staff Writer
Secrets of the Deep
Secrets of the Deep
Credit: NOAA
We’ve gathered haunting images of shipwrecks from the murky depths of seas across the globe. Dive in!
Stuck Underwater
Stuck Underwater
Credit: NOAA
Divers from the University of Hawaii’s Marine Option Program inspect an amphibious vehicle called the Landing Vehicle Tracked-4 (LVT–4) that was introduced by the United States in World War II. The wreck was found along the southern coast of Maui.
Caribbean Shipwreck
Caribbean Shipwreck
Credit: NOAA’s Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment Biogeography | TimBattista | NickPrzyuski
An unidentified Caribbean shipwreck discovered by NOAA oceanography researchers on April 1, 2011. [Gallery: Lost in the Bermuda Triangle]
Northern Light
Northern Light
Credit: Tane Casserley | NOAA/MONITOR NMS | NOAA’s Sanctuaries Collection
The shipwreck of the barge “Northern Light” was found about 2.5 miles (4 kilometers) southeast of Key Largo’s Elbow Reef in the Florida Keys at a depth of 190 feet (57.9 meters). The ship was built in 1888 as a freighter by Globe Iron Works of Cleveland, Ohio, but was converted into a barge in 1927. It’s believed that “Northern Light” sank in 1930 after it struck a floating object during a severe storm.
Midway Island Wreck
Midway Island Wreck
Credit: Robert Schwemmer | CINMS | NOAA
NOAA diver John Brooks inspects the remains of the vessel “USS MACAW” located among the reefs of Midway Island within the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. The shipwreck serves as a reminder of the valuable contributions of the Naval Air Facility at Midway during World War II, and is part of Hawaii’s Papahanaumokuakea (Northwestern Hawaiian Islands) Marine National Monument.
Hoei Maru Shipwreck
Hoei Maru Shipwreck
Credit: Claire Fackler | NOAA National Marine Sanctuaries
Also located within Hawaii’s Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument, the “Hoei Maru” shipwreck rests at the bottom of Kure Atoll — the most remote of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. The “Hoei Maru” is one of the vessels shipwrecked on the small island’s surrounding reefs.
Paul Palmer Wreckage
Paul Palmer Wreckage
Credit: Matthew Lawrence | NOAA/SBNMS
The “Paul Palmer” was built in 1902 and operated as a schooner in the New England coal trade. In June 1913, a fire broke out on the ship and the crew abandoned the vessel. Damage from the blaze caused “Paul Palmer” to sink to its final resting place at the bottom of the mouth of Massachusetts Bay, an area now known as the Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary. The above photo of the wreck shows fishing nets tangled in its partially buried remains.
Overgrown Hull
Overgrown Hull
Credit: Matthew Lawrence | NOAA/SBNMSS
hown here, Paul Palmer’s wooden hull, now grown over with coral and serving as a colorful home to various fish and other marine life.
The Unknown
The Unknown
Credit: University of Hawaii | NOAA
Divers from the University of Hawaii’s Marine Option Program measure and map out an unidentified vessel. The craft was found during a survey of sunken World War II-era wrecks in the waters close to the shore of Makena in Maui, Hawaii.
Dunnottar Castle Shipwreck
Dunnottar Castle Shipwreck
Credit: NOAA National Marine Sanctuary Program
Another ship located at Hawaii’s Kure Atoll reef, the “Dunnottar Castle” was a 258-foot (79-meter) cargo ship that was built in 1874 in Scotland. It was making its way from Sydney, Australia, to Wilmington, Calif., with a load of coal when it struck a reef and sank in July 1886. The wreck was initially explored by marine archaeologists in 2006. Although it has become flattened over time, the ship miraculously remained largely intact. Its ruins, including an iron hull, steel yards, masts and anchors, are inhabited by fish, clams and shrimp, and some portions of the ship are covered in coral.
Shipwreck Alley
Shipwreck Alley
Credit: Tane Casserley | NOAAA
NOAA diver investigates the lower deck of the Great Lakes wooden freighter “SS Florida,” which sank after smashing into the steamship “RMS Republic” in January 1909. It now rests on the murky bottom of “Shipwreck Alley” in the Thunder Bay National Marine Sanctuary, located in northwestern Lake Huron, Mich.
Resting in the Murky Deep
Resting in the Murky Deep
Credit: NOAA | Institute for Exploration | University of Rhode Island
Built in Northern Ireland in 1909, the “RMS Titanic” was also known as the “unsinkable ship,” because it had a double-bottom hull divided into 16 compartments that were presumed to be watertight. The 882.5-foot-long (268.9 meters) craft sank in April 1912 after it struck an iceberg off southern Newfoundland, and now rests on the ocean floor at a depth of 12,460 feet (3.7 kilometers).

Note  November 30, 2012

To Whom It May Concern :

Dear Friends,

If you interesting to take over this Blog, please do not hesitate to email me for further detail.

Thank you and Best Regards,


19th-Century Shipwrecks Discovered Off Israel’s Coast

Posted in UNDERWATER ARCHAEOLOGY with tags on November 30, 2012 by 2eyeswatching

Post 1467

19th-Century Shipwrecks Discovered Off Israel’s Coast

Tia Ghose, LiveScience Staff Writer
Date: 29 November 2012 Time: 09:06 AM ET
Four shipwrecks buried off the coast of Israel may reveal the site of an ancient Greek harbor.
CREDIT: Jacob Sharvit, Israel Antiquities Authority 

Archaeologists have discovered four 19th-century warships, and possibly the remains of an ancient Greek harbor, off the coast of Israel.

The fleet was found at the ancient port of Akko, one of the major ports of the Mediterranean during the Hellenistic period from 300 B.C. to 100 B.C. The new discoveries could point to even more ancient, elusive shipwrecks.

“I’m very interested in finding a well-preserved example of an ancient multi-decked warship from the Hellenistic age,” study author Bridget Buxton, an archaeologist from the University of Rhode Island, said in a statement. “These ships were incredible pieces of technology, but we don’t know much about their design, because no hulls have been found. However, a combination of unusual environmental and historical factors leads us to believe we have a chance of finding the remains of one of these ships off the northern coast of Israel.”

The team found the four warships in 2011 using sound waves to probe beneath the ocean floor off the coast of Akko in northern Israel. The city has been a busy port since antiquity. After storms briefly washed away some of the sediment burying the ships, the Israeli Antiquities Authority peeked into one of the 105-foot (32-meter)-long ships. Sediment has since reburied the fleet. Wood from the ship came from Turkey, laboratory analysis showed.

wood from shipwreck
An analysis of some of the wreckage revealed that the wood from the ship came from Turkey. The research team believes the ship was part of a 19th century Egyptian naval fleet.
CREDIT: Jacob Sharvit, Israel Antiquities Authority

The researchers believe the ships, once part of an Egyptian fleet, sank during the Egyptian Ottoman war when Admiral Osman Nurredin Bey attempted to retake the city of Akko in 1831.

In the process of excavating in the area, the team also found the remains of a ship shed that was possibly used to bring in warships during the Hellenistic period. At the site, they found remnants of Hellenistic stonework, ancient pottery, mooring materials and a stone quay. These fragments suggest a much older, ancient Greek port may lie beneath the seafloor — along with even more ancient shipwrecks.

“We’ve got fragmentary historic records for this area in the Hellenistic period, and now we’ve found a very important feature from the ancient harbor. Ancient shipwrecks are another piece of the puzzle that will help us to rewrite the story of this region at a critical time in Mediterranean history,” Buxton said in a statement.

The findings were presented at the annual meeting of the American Schools of Oriental Research on Nov. 15 and 17 in Chicago.



Note  November 30, 2012

To Whom It May Concern :

Dear Friends,

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Thank you and Best Regards,



A world map of average life expectancy by country. How does your nation rank?

Posted in SCIENCE, GEOLOGY,HEALTH, INVIRONMENT, TECHNOLOGY,ANTHROPOLOGY, ARCHAEOLOGY, with tags on November 30, 2012 by 2eyeswatching

Post 1466

A world map of average life expectancy by country. How does your nation rank?

Robert T. Gonzalez

Here now to provide a some perspective on the matter of mortality is a variegated patchwork comprising 188 of the world’s countries, with each nation color-coded in accordance with the average life expectancy of its citizens.

Click here for a hi-res version of the map up top, and here for an interactive one (the applet also allows for mapping by gender).

Just for fun, we’ve included the top twenty-five countries — as ranked by the CIA World Factbook’s 2012 estimates — here. Looking for America? Don’t bother. Depending on the data source, the U.S. usually comes in somewhere between 29th and 50th :

This entry contains the average number of years to be lived by a group of people born in the same year, if mortality at each age remains constant in the future. The entry includes total population as well as themale and female components. Life expectancy at birth is also a measure of overall quality of life in a country and summarizes the mortality at all ages. It can also be thought of as indicating the potential return on investment in human capital and is necessary for the calculation of various actuarial measures.
Country Comparison to the World
Afghanistan total population: 49.72 years
male: 48.45 years
female: 51.05 years (2012 est.)
Albania total population: 77.59 years
male: 74.99 years
female: 80.49 years (2012 est.)
Algeria total population: 74.73 years
male: 72.99 years
female: 76.57 years (2012 est.)
American Samoa total population: 74.44 years
male: 71.5 years
female: 77.56 years (2012 est.)
Andorra total population: 82.5 years
male: 80.4 years
female: 84.74 years (2012 est.)
Angola total population: 54.59 years
male: 53.49 years
female: 55.73 years (2012 est.)
Anguilla total population: 80.98 years
male: 78.42 years
female: 83.63 years (2012 est.)
Antigua and Barbuda total population: 75.69 years
male: 73.66 years
female: 77.83 years (2012 est.)
Argentina total population: 77.14 years
male: 73.9 years
female: 80.54 years (2012 est.)
Armenia total population: 73.49 years
male: 69.85 years
female: 77.56 years (2012 est.)
Aruba total population: 75.93 years
male: 72.89 years
female: 79.04 years (2012 est.)
Australia total population: 81.9 years
male: 79.48 years
female: 84.45 years (2012 est.)
Austria total population: 79.91 years
male: 77 years
female: 82.97 years (2012 est.)
Azerbaijan total population: 71.32 years
male: 68.38 years
female: 74.68 years (2012 est.)
Bahamas, The total population: 71.44 years
male: 69.04 years
female: 73.91 years (2012 est.)
Bahrain total population: 78.29 years
male: 76.16 years
female: 80.48 years (2012 est.)
Bangladesh total population: 70.06 years
male: 68.21 years
female: 71.98 years (2012 est.)
Barbados total population: 74.52 years
male: 72.25 years
female: 76.82 years (2012 est.)
Belarus total population: 71.48 years
male: 65.88 years
female: 77.42 years (2012 est.)
Belgium total population: 79.65 years
male: 76.49 years
female: 82.95 years (2012 est.)
Belize total population: 68.28 years
male: 66.61 years
female: 70.04 years (2012 est.)
Benin total population: 60.26 years
male: 59 years
female: 61.59 years (2012 est.)
Bermuda total population: 80.82 years
male: 77.6 years
female: 84.1 years (2012 est.)
Bhutan total population: 67.88 years
male: 67.01 years
female: 68.79 years (2012 est.)
Bolivia total population: 67.9 years
male: 65.16 years
female: 70.77 years (2012 est.)
Bosnia and Herzegovina total population: 78.96 years
male: 75.42 years
female: 82.77 years (2012 est.)
Botswana total population: 55.74 years
male: 56.93 years
female: 54.51 years (2012 est.)
Brazil total population: 72.79 years
male: 69.24 years
female: 76.53 years (2012 est.)
British Virgin Islands total population: 77.95 years
male: 76.73 years
female: 79.24 years (2012 est.)
Brunei total population: 76.37 years
male: 74.09 years
female: 78.75 years (2012 est.)
Bulgaria total population: 73.84 years
male: 70.24 years
female: 77.65 years (2012 est.)
Burkina Faso total population: 54.07 years
male: 52.09 years
female: 56.1 years (2012 est.)
Burma total population: 65.24 years
male: 62.91 years
female: 67.71 years (2012 est.)
Burundi total population: 59.24 years
male: 57.52 years
female: 61.02 years (2012 est.)
Cambodia total population: 63.04 years
male: 60.66 years
female: 65.53 years (2012 est.)
Cameroon total population: 54.71 years
male: 53.82 years
female: 55.63 years (2012 est.)
Canada total population: 81.48 years
male: 78.89 years
female: 84.21 years (2012 est.)
Cape Verde total population: 71 years
male: 68.78 years
female: 73.27 years (2012 est.)
Cayman Islands total population: 80.8 years
male: 78.12 years
female: 83.51 years (2012 est.)
Central African Republic total population: 50.48 years
male: 49.23 years
female: 51.76 years (2012 est.)
Chad total population: 48.69 years
male: 47.61 years
female: 49.82 years (2012 est.)
Chile total population: 78.1 years
male: 75.08 years
female: 81.25 years (2012 est.)
China total population: 74.84 years
male: 72.82 years
female: 77.11 years (2012 est.)
Christmas Island total population: NA
male: NA
female: NA
Cocos (Keeling) Islands total population: NA
male: NA
female: NA
Colombia total population: 74.79 years
male: 71.55 years
female: 78.23 years (2012 est.)
Comoros total population: 62.74 years
male: 60.54 years
female: 65.01 years (2012 est.)
Congo, Democratic Republic of the total population: 55.74 years
male: 54.28 years
female: 57.23 years (2012 est.)
Congo, Republic of the total population: 55.27 years
male: 53.95 years
female: 56.62 years (2012 est.)
Cook Islands total population: 74.92 years
male: 72.13 years
female: 77.86 years (2012 est.)
Costa Rica total population: 77.89 years
male: 75.26 years
female: 80.65 years (2012 est.)
Cote d’Ivoire total population: 57.25 years
male: 56.21 years
female: 58.33 years (2012 est.)
Croatia total population: 75.99 years
male: 72.38 years
female: 79.8 years (2012 est.)
Cuba total population: 77.87 years
male: 75.61 years
female: 80.27 years (2012 est.)
Curacao total: NA
males: 72.4 years
females: 80.1 years (2009)
Cyprus total population: 78 years
male: 75.21 years
female: 80.92 years (2012 est.)
Czech Republic total population: 77.38 years
male: 74.11 years
female: 80.83 years (2012 est.)
Denmark total population: 78.78 years
male: 76.39 years
female: 81.31 years (2012 est.)
Djibouti total population: 61.57 years
male: 59.15 years
female: 64.07 years (2012 est.)
Dominica total population: 76.18 years
male: 73.23 years
female: 79.29 years (2012 est.)
Dominican Republic total population: 77.44 years
male: 75.28 years
female: 79.69 years (2012 est.)
Ecuador total population: 75.94 years
male: 73 years
female: 79.04 years (2012 est.)
Egypt total population: 72.93 years
male: 70.33 years
female: 75.66 years (2012 est.)
El Salvador total population: 73.69 years
male: 70.41 years
female: 77.12 years (2012 est.)
Equatorial Guinea total population: 62.75 years
male: 61.75 years
female: 63.78 years (2012 est.)
Eritrea total population: 62.86 years
male: 60.73 years
female: 65.06 years (2012 est.)
Estonia total population: 73.58 years
male: 68.3 years
female: 79.19 years (2012 est.)
Ethiopia total population: 56.56 years
male: 53.99 years
female: 59.21 years (2012 est.)
European Union total population: 79.76 years
male: 76.91 years
female: 82.76 years (2010 est.)
Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas) total population: NA
male: NA
female: NA
Faroe Islands total population: 79.85 years
male: 77.37 years
female: 82.5 years (2012 est.)
Fiji total population: 71.59 years
male: 69 years
female: 74.32 years (2012 est.)
Finland total population: 79.41 years
male: 75.94 years
female: 83.02 years (2012 est.)
France total population: 81.46 years
male: 78.35 years
female: 84.73 years (2012 est.)
French Polynesia total population: 76.39 years
male: 74.18 years
female: 78.71 years (2012 est.)
Gabon total population: 52.29 years
male: 51.65 years
female: 52.93 years (2012 est.)
Gambia, The total population: 63.82 years
male: 61.52 years
female: 66.18 years (2012 est.)
Gaza Strip total population: 74.16 years
male: 72.48 years
female: 75.95 years (2012 est.)
Georgia total population: 77.32 years
male: 73.99 years
female: 81 years (2012 est.)
Germany total population: 80.19 years
male: 77.93 years
female: 82.58 years (2012 est.)
Ghana total population: 61.45 years
male: 60.22 years
female: 62.73 years (2012 est.)
Gibraltar total population: 78.83 years
male: 75.99 years
female: 81.87 years (2012 est.)
Greece total population: 80.05 years
male: 77.48 years
female: 82.79 years (2012 est.)
Greenland total population: 71.25 years
male: 68.6 years
female: 74.04 years (2012 est.)
Grenada total population: 73.3 years
male: 70.76 years
female: 76.09 years (2012 est.)
Guam total population: 78.5 years
male: 75.46 years
female: 81.73 years (2012 est.)
Guatemala total population: 71.17 years
male: 69.29 years
female: 73.14 years (2012 est.)
Guernsey total population: 82.24 years
male: 79.57 years
female: 85.04 years (2012 est.)
Guinea total population: 58.61 years
male: 57.12 years
female: 60.15 years (2012 est.)
Guinea-Bissau total population: 49.11 years
male: 47.16 years
female: 51.11 years (2012 est.)
Guyana total population: 67.39 years
male: 63.57 years
female: 71.4 years (2012 est.)
Haiti total population: 62.51 years
male: 61.15 years
female: 63.89 years
note: the preliminary 2011 numbers differ significantly from those of 2010, which were strongly influenced by the demographic effect of the January 2010 earthquake; the latest figures more closely correspond to those of 2009 (2012 est.)
Honduras total population: 70.71 years
male: 69.03 years
female: 72.47 years (2012 est.)
Hong Kong total population: 82.12 years
male: 79.39 years
female: 85.05 years (2012 est.)
Hungary total population: 75.02 years
male: 71.27 years
female: 78.98 years (2012 est.)
Iceland total population: 81 years
male: 78.81 years
female: 83.29 years (2012 est.)
India total population: 67.14 years
male: 66.08 years
female: 68.33 years (2012 est.)
Indonesia total population: 71.62 years
male: 69.07 years
female: 74.29 years (2012 est.)
Iran total population: 70.35 years
male: 68.84 years
female: 71.93 years (2012 est.)
Iraq total population: 70.85 years
male: 69.41 years
female: 72.35 years (2012 est.)
Ireland total population: 80.32 years
male: 78.07 years
female: 82.69 years (2012 est.)
Isle of Man total population: 80.76 years
male: 79.17 years
female: 82.47 years (2012 est.)
Israel total population: 81.07 years
male: 78.88 years
female: 83.36 years (2012 est.)
Italy total population: 81.86 years
male: 79.24 years
female: 84.63 years (2012 est.)
Jamaica total population: 73.43 years
male: 71.78 years
female: 75.15 years (2012 est.)
Japan total population: 83.91 years
male: 80.57 years
female: 87.43 years (2012 est.)
Jersey total population: 81.47 years
male: 79.05 years
female: 84.04 years (2012 est.)
Jordan total population: 80.18 years
male: 78.82 years
female: 81.61 years (2012 est.)
Kazakhstan total population: 69.63 years
male: 64.34 years
female: 74.59 years (2012 est.)
Kenya total population: 63.07 years
male: 61.62 years
female: 64.55 years (2012 est.)
Kiribati total population: 64.76 years
male: 62.37 years
female: 67.26 years (2012 est.)
Korea, North total population: 69.2 years
male: 65.34 years
female: 73.24 years (2012 est.)
Korea, South total population: 79.3 years
male: 76.12 years
female: 82.7 years (2012 est.)
Kuwait total population: 77.28 years
male: 76.09 years
female: 78.51 years (2012 est.)
Kyrgyzstan total population: 69.45 years
male: 65.27 years
female: 73.91 years (2012 est.)
Laos total population: 62.77 years
male: 60.85 years
female: 64.76 years (2012 est.)
Latvia total population: 72.93 years
male: 67.84 years
female: 78.3 years (2012 est.)
Lebanon total population: 75.23 years
male: 73.67 years
female: 76.88 years (2012 est.)
Lesotho total population: 51.86 years
male: 51.77 years
female: 51.95 years (2012 est.)
Liberia total population: 57.41 years
male: 55.82 years
female: 59.04 years (2012 est.)
Libya total population: 77.83 years
male: 75.5 years
female: 80.27 years (2012 est.)
Liechtenstein total population: 81.5 years
male: 79.37 years
female: 84.19 years (2012 est.)
Lithuania total population: 75.55 years
male: 70.72 years
female: 80.66 years (2012 est.)
Luxembourg total population: 79.75 years
male: 76.5 years
female: 83.21 years (2012 est.)
Macau total population: 84.43 years
male: 81.47 years
female: 87.54 years (2012 est.)
Macedonia total population: 75.36 years
male: 72.82 years
female: 78.1 years (2012 est.)
Madagascar total population: 64 years
male: 61.97 years
female: 66.1 years (2012 est.)
Malawi total population: 52.31 years
male: 51.5 years
female: 53.13 years (2012 est.)
Malaysia total population: 74.04 years
male: 71.28 years
female: 76.99 years (2012 est.)
Maldives total population: 74.69 years
male: 72.44 years
female: 77.05 years (2012 est.)
Mali total population: 53.06 years
male: 51.43 years
female: 54.73 years (2012 est.)
Malta total population: 79.85 years
male: 77.57 years
female: 82.26 years (2012 est.)
Marshall Islands total population: 72.03 years
male: 69.92 years
female: 74.25 years (2012 est.)
Mauritania total population: 61.53 years
male: 59.3 years
female: 63.82 years (2012 est.)
Mauritius total population: 74.71 years
male: 71.25 years
female: 78.35 years (2012 est.)
Mexico total population: 76.66 years
male: 73.84 years
female: 79.63 years (2012 est.)
Micronesia, Federated States of total population: 71.8 years
male: 69.84 years
female: 73.85 years (2012 est.)
Moldova total population: 69.51 years
male: 65.64 years
female: 73.63 years (2012 est.)
Monaco total population: 89.68 years
male: 85.74 years
female: 93.77 years (2012 est.)
Mongolia total population: 68.63 years
male: 66.16 years
female: 71.23 years (2012 est.)
Montserrat total population: 73.41 years
male: 75.15 years
female: 71.58 years (2012 est.)
Morocco total population: 76.11 years
male: 73.04 years
female: 79.32 years (2012 est.)
Mozambique total population: 52.02 years
male: 51.26 years
female: 52.8 years (2012 est.)
Namibia total population: 52.17 years
male: 52.47 years
female: 51.86 years (2012 est.)
Nauru total population: 65.7 years
male: 61.62 years
female: 69.11 years (2012 est.)
Nepal total population: 66.51 years
male: 65.26 years
female: 67.82 years (2012 est.)
Netherlands total population: 80.91 years
male: 78.84 years
female: 83.08 years (2012 est.)
New Caledonia total population: 76.94 years
male: 72.88 years
female: 81.2 years (2012 est.)
New Zealand total population: 80.71 years
male: 78.7 years
female: 82.81 years (2012 est.)
Nicaragua total population: 72.18 years
male: 70.07 years
female: 74.39 years (2012 est.)
Niger total population: 53.8 years
male: 52.51 years
female: 55.13 years (2012 est.)
Nigeria total population: 52.05 years
male: 48.95 years
female: 55.33 years (2012 est.)
Niue total population: NA
male: NA
female: NA
Norfolk Island total population: NA
male: NA
female: NA
Northern Mariana Islands total population: 77.27 years
male: 74.62 years
female: 80.07 years (2012 est.)
Norway total population: 80.32 years
male: 77.65 years
female: 83.14 years (2012 est.)
Oman total population: 74.47 years
male: 72.61 years
female: 76.43 years (2012 est.)
Pakistan total population: 66.35 years
male: 64.52 years
female: 68.28 years (2012 est.)
Palau total population: 72.06 years
male: 68.9 years
female: 75.4 years (2012 est.)
Panama total population: 77.96 years
male: 75.18 years
female: 80.86 years (2012 est.)
Papua New Guinea total population: 66.46 years
male: 64.23 years
female: 68.79 years (2012 est.)
Paraguay total population: 76.4 years
male: 73.78 years
female: 79.14 years (2012 est.)
Peru total population: 72.73 years
male: 70.78 years
female: 74.76 years (2012 est.)
Philippines total population: 71.94 years
male: 68.99 years
female: 75.03 years (2012 est.)
Pitcairn Islands total population: NA
male: NA
female: NA
Poland total population: 76.25 years
male: 72.31 years
female: 80.43 years (2012 est.)
Portugal total population: 78.7 years
male: 75.45 years
female: 82.16 years (2012 est.)
Puerto Rico total population: 79.07 years
male: 75.47 years
female: 82.84 years (2012 est.)
Qatar total population: 78.09 years
male: 76.11 years
female: 80.12 years (2012 est.)
Romania total population: 74.22 years
male: 70.75 years
female: 77.89 years (2012 est.)
Russia total population: 66.46 years
male: 60.11 years
female: 73.18 years (2012 est.)
Rwanda total population: 58.44 years
male: 56.96 years
female: 59.96 years (2012 est.)
Saint Helena, Ascension, and Tristan da Cunha total population: 78.91 years
male: 75.98 years
female: 81.98 years (2012 est.)
Saint Kitts and Nevis total population: 74.84 years
male: 72.46 years
female: 77.26 years (2012 est.)
Saint Lucia total population: 77.04 years
male: 74.34 years
female: 79.88 years (2012 est.)
Saint Pierre and Miquelon total population: 80 years
male: 77.72 years
female: 82.41 years (2012 est.)
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines total population: 74.39 years
male: 72.48 years
female: 76.36 years (2012 est.)
Samoa total population: 72.66 years
male: 69.79 years
female: 75.68 years (2012 est.)
San Marino total population: 83.07 years
male: 80.55 years
female: 85.81 years (2012 est.)
Sao Tome and Principe total population: 63.49 years
male: 62.27 years
female: 64.74 years (2012 est.)
Saudi Arabia total population: 74.35 years
male: 72.37 years
female: 76.42 years (2012 est.)
Senegal total population: 60.18 years
male: 58.22 years
female: 62.19 years (2012 est.)
Serbia total population: 74.56 years
male: 71.71 years
female: 77.58 years (2012 est.)
Seychelles total population: 73.77 years
male: 69.14 years
female: 78.54 years (2012 est.)
Sierra Leone total population: 56.55 years
male: 54.08 years
female: 59.11 years (2012 est.)
Singapore total population: 83.75 years
male: 81.47 years
female: 86.2 years (2012 est.)
Sint Maarten total population: NA
male: 73.1 years
female: 78.2 years (2009)
Slovakia total population: 76.03 years
male: 72.14 years
female: 80.12 years (2012 est.)
Slovenia total population: 77.48 years
male: 73.83 years
female: 81.36 years (2012 est.)
Solomon Islands total population: 74.42 years
male: 71.83 years
female: 77.14 years (2012 est.)
Somalia total population: 50.8 years
male: 48.86 years
female: 52.8 years (2012 est.)
South Africa total population: 49.41 years
male: 50.34 years
female: 48.45 years (2012 est.)
Spain total population: 81.27 years
male: 78.26 years
female: 84.47 years (2012 est.)
Sri Lanka total population: 75.94 years
male: 72.43 years
female: 79.59 years (2012 est.)
Sudan total population: 62.57 years
male: 60.58 years
female: 64.67 years (2012 est.)
Suriname total population: 71.12 years
male: 68.78 years
female: 73.58 years (2012 est.)
Svalbard total population: NA
male: NA
female: NA
Swaziland total population: 49.42 years
male: 49.77 years
female: 49.06 years (2012 est.)
Sweden total population: 81.18 years
male: 78.86 years
female: 83.63 years (2012 est.)
Switzerland total population: 81.17 years
male: 78.34 years
female: 84.16 years (2012 est.)
Syria total population: 74.92 years
male: 72.53 years
female: 77.45 years (2012 est.)
Taiwan total population: 78.48 years
male: 75.66 years
female: 81.53 years (2012 est.)
Tajikistan total population: 66.38 years
male: 63.3 years
female: 69.61 years (2012 est.)
Tanzania total population: 53.14 years
male: 51.62 years
female: 54.7 years (2012 est.)
Thailand total population: 73.83 years
male: 71.45 years
female: 76.33 years (2012 est.)
Timor-Leste total population: 68.27 years
male: 65.85 years
female: 70.81 years (2012 est.)
Togo total population: 63.17 years
male: 60.64 years
female: 65.77 years (2012 est.)
Tokelau total population: NA
male: NA
female: NA
Tonga total population: 75.38 years
male: 73.98 years
female: 76.83 years (2012 est.)
Trinidad and Tobago total population: 71.67 years
male: 68.81 years
female: 74.6 years (2012 est.)
Tunisia total population: 75.24 years
male: 73.2 years
female: 77.42 years (2012 est.)
Turkey total population: 72.77 years
male: 70.86 years
female: 74.78 years (2012 est.)
Turkmenistan total population: 68.84 years
male: 65.87 years
female: 71.96 years (2012 est.)
Turks and Caicos Islands total population: 79.26 years
male: 76.53 years
female: 82.12 years (2012 est.)
Tuvalu total population: 65.11 years
male: 63.03 years
female: 67.29 years (2012 est.)
Uganda total population: 53.45 years
male: 52.4 years
female: 54.54 years (2012 est.)
Ukraine total population: 68.74 years
male: 63.07 years
female: 74.77 years (2012 est.)
United Arab Emirates total population: 76.71 years
male: 74.12 years
female: 79.42 years (2012 est.)
United Kingdom total population: 80.17 years
male: 78.05 years
female: 82.4 years (2012 est.)
United States total population: 78.49 years
male: 76.05 years
female: 81.05 years (2012 est.)
Uruguay total population: 76.41 years
male: 73.27 years
female: 79.66 years (2012 est.)
Uzbekistan total population: 72.77 years
male: 69.74 years
female: 75.98 years (2012 est.)
Vanuatu total population: 65.06 years
male: 63.38 years
female: 66.83 years (2012 est.)
Venezuela total population: 74.08 years
male: 70.98 years
female: 77.34 years (2012 est.)
Vietnam total population: 72.41 years
male: 69.95 years
female: 75.16 years (2012 est.)
Virgin Islands total population: 79.47 years
male: 76.43 years
female: 82.69 years (2012 est.)
Wallis and Futuna total population: 79.12 years
male: 76.14 years
female: 82.26 years (2012 est.)
West Bank total population: 75.24 years
male: 73.17 years
female: 77.42 years (2012 est.)
Western Sahara total population: 61.52 years
male: 59.3 years
female: 63.82 years (2012 est.)
World total population: 67.59 years
male: 65.59 years
female: 69.73 years (2012 est.)
Yemen total population: 64.11 years
male: 62.05 years
female: 66.27 years (2012 est.)
Zambia total population: 52.57 years
male: 51.35 years
female: 53.83 years (2012 est.)
Zimbabwe total population: 51.82 years
male: 51.95 years
female: 51.68 years (2012 est.)

Note  November 30, 2012

To Whom It May Concern :

Dear Friends,

If you interesting to take over this Blog, please do not hesitate to email me for further detail.

Thank you and Best Regards,


How space-based solar power will solve all our energy needs

Posted in THE UNIVERSE & SPACE SCIENCE with tags , on November 29, 2012 by 2eyeswatching

Post 1465

How space-based solar power will solve all our energy needs

 How space-based solar power will solve all our energy needs

Humanity’s demand for energy is growing at an astonishing rate. Combine this with an ever-dwindling supply of fossil fuels, and it becomes painfully clear that something innovative and powerful is required. There’s one high-tech proposal that holds tremendous promise — an idea that has been around since the late 1960s. Here’s how space-based solar power will eventually solve all our energy needs.

Humans needs more power

Assuming that economic progress and globalization continues at its current pace, we’ll need to produce twice the amount of energy that’s consumed today by the 2030s — what will reach a monumental 220 trillion kiloWatt hours per year. And by the end of the century, we’ll need four times the current rate of consumption.


Just as importantly, we’re also going to have to kick the fossil fuel habit — and not only because it’ll eventually run out. Rising CO2 emissions are wreaking havoc on the Earth’s atmosphere, what’s creating environmentally deleterious side-effects at a rate faster than expected.

Moreover, if greenhouse gases are to be brought under control over the course of the next several decades, we’ll need to get upwards of 90% of all our energy from either renewable or nuclear sources.

While there are a number of proposals on the table for how we might be able to meet these challenges, none really appear to be truly viable.

Except for solar powered satellites.

Obvious benefits

A closer look at a space-based solution yields a lengthy list of advantages.

Solar powered satellites don’t produce any greenhouse gases, nor do they take up valuable real estate on Earth. Once the initial costs are met, they would be relatively cheap to maintain; the solar modules used for generating solar energy have a long service life, not to mention the astounding ROI that would come from a virtually unlimited energy source.

Additionally, they’re not constrained by night/day cycles, the weather, or the changing seasons. And indeed, they would be much more efficient than any kind of ground-based station. The collection of solar energy in space is seven times greater per unit area than on the surface of the planet. Moreover, the amount of solar energy available up there is staggering — on the order of billions of times greater than what we draw today; the Earth receives only one part in 2.3 billion of the Sun’s output. The potential for scalability is enormous, to say the least.

Solar powered satellites won’t be prone to terrorist attacks and they’ll reduce geopolitical pressure for oil. According to futurist Keith Henson, space-based solar could be used to power vehicles, like electric cars, or by enabling the production of synthetic fuels — which at a penny per kiloWatt hour would result in gasoline that costs one dollar a gallon.

At the same time, space-based solar would provide true energy independence for those nations who choose to implement it. And on top of that, the energy could be exported to virtually anywhere in the world; it would be especially valuable for isolated areas of the globe, including Africa and India.

Lastly, space-based solar power would also yield tremendous benefits to human and robotic space exploration, including the powering of off-planet colonies on the Moon, Mars, and space stations. It could also serve as the first seed in the development of a Dyson Sphere — a massive array of solar collectors that would completely envelope the sun at a distance of about 1 AU.

How it’s going to work

Back in the late 1960s, Peter Glaser proposed the idea of solar powered satellites (SPS), what he envisioned as space-based photovoltaics that could transfer energy wirelessly back down to Earth. His design called for a large platform positioned in space in a high Earth orbit that would continuously collect and convert solar energy into electricity. In turn, that power would be used to drive a wireless power transmission (WPT) that beams the solar energy to receiving stations on Earth — what would be comprised of massive receiving dishes.

A number of visionaries have updated Glaser’s vision to include the use of a microwave wireless power transmitter. This would involve large discrete structures (like a solar array and transmitter) that would have to be assembled in space. SPS systems could also include a modular electric/diode array laser WPT concept, involving self-assembling solar power-laser-thermal modules. Other designs call for an extremely modular microwave WPT SPS “sandwich structure” concept, requiring a significant number of small solar power-microwave-thermal modules that would be robotically assembled on orbit.

But to make it happen, we’ll need to develop low-cost, environmentally-friendly launch vehicles. Eventually we’ll send the materials up in a space elevator, but until then we’ll have to come up with something more efficient. Thankfully, SpaceX and other private firms are already working on more efficient launch solutions.

Additionally, we’ll require large scale construction and operations stations in orbit — space-based workplaces that would be more complex, larger, and more energy-demanding than the ISS. They would allow for the production of large, simple panels, that are easy to assemble and consist of many identical parts. Eventually, it may be possible to construct an entire flotilla of these solar collectors using materials extracted from asteroids.

Design proposals

As word gets out about the potential for SPS, and as the technology catches up to the idea, a number of design proposals have been put forth; this isn’t just idle speculation anymore — it’s something that’s just about ready for prime-time.

For example, there’s SPS-ALPHA (Solar Power Satellite via Arbitrarily Large PHased Array) which is being developed by NASA’s John Mankins. Using a “biomimetic” approach, the project calls for huge platforms constructed from tens of thousands of small elements that could deliver tens to thousands of megawatts via wireless power transmission.

It would do this by using a large array of individually controlled thin-film mirrors outfitted on the curved surface of a satellite. These adjustable mirrors would intercept and redirect incoming sunlight toward photovoltaic cells affixed to the backside of the solar power satellite’s large array. The Earth-pointing side of the array would be tiled with a collection of microwave-power transmission panels that generate the coherent, low-intensity beam of radio frequency energy and transmits that energy to Earth.

And what’s particularly cool about this concept is that it would enable the construction of a solar-power satellite that can be assembled entirely from individual system elements that weigh no more than 110 to 440 pounds (50 to 200 kilograms), allowing all pieces to be mass produced at low cost.

There’s also Japan’s JAXA’s SBSP System. The Japanese space agency want to get a prototype up and running by 2020, and a fully operational system by 2030. Their system is designed to run in a stationary orbit about 22,400 miles above the equator where it will absorb the sunlight with chromium-enhanced solar cells. The SBSP System will transmit energy to Earth using laser beams at about 42% solar-to-laser energy efficiency. Each satellite will beam the energy to a 1.8-mile wide receiving station that’ll produce one gigawatt of electricity — what’s enough to power 500,000 homes.

Other examples include the Sun Tower, the Dyson-Harrop Satellite (which would harness solarwind power), Solar Disc, and the European Sail Tower SPS.


SPS systems have been discussed since the 1970s and have been reviewed periodically by various stakeholders in United States and elsewhere — but the idea has never been seen as something that’s cost effective or technologically feasible. These sentiments are changing, however.

Last year, the International Academy of Astronautics published an exhaustive reportlauding the benefits of space-based solar power, urging the international community to take the prospect seriously. The report contained over a dozen recommendations on how to get started, while predicting that space solar power will be technically feasible within 10 to 20 years using technologies thatalready exist.

The authors also noted that the project would be economically viable in the next several decades, but under specific conditions having to do with future energy markets and the willingness of governments to get started (what could be motivated by environmental concerns).

Additionally, flight experiments will be required, as will be the ironing-out of any policy or regulatory issues — what could definitely take some time. Needless to say, some groups and individuals may take great exception to the idea of having microwaves and laser beams shooting down onto the Earth’s surface — not to mention the nightmarish potential for the weaponization of this technology.

And in terms of expense, the IAA proposed a cost-sharing scheme in which nations would work together to bring the price down — what could cost as much as a trillion dollars.

But given the incredible benefits — not to mention the tremendous need — it’s a no-brainer that this needs to happen.


Dark Knight art appears to rip the floor out of an Australian mall

Posted in THE ART with tags on November 29, 2012 by 2eyeswatching

Post 1464

Dark Knight art appears to rip the floor out of an Australian mall


An artist created this incredible 3D chalk art for the Dark Knight Rises film in a mall in Sydney, Australia. It looks like the glowing bat symbol has eaten away the floor and the entire shopping center is crumbling into the Earth’s superheated maw. Click to enlarge!

AP photo by Rob Griffith

An absolutely incredible raw image of Saturn’s swirling north pole

Posted in THE UNIVERSE & SPACE SCIENCE with tags , on November 29, 2012 by 2eyeswatching

Post 1463

An absolutely incredible raw image of Saturn’s swirling north pole

Jason Major – Universe Today

Ok, are you ready for this? I know… WOW.

This swirling maelstrom of clouds is what was seen over Saturn’s north pole yesterday, November 27, by NASA’s Cassini spacecraft. This is a raw image, acquired in polarized light, from a distance of 238,045 miles (383,097 kilometers)… all I did was remove some of the hot pixels that are commonly found on Cassini images taken with longer exposures.

Again… WOW.

My attempt at a color composite can be seen below, plus another treat.

It’s rough, and a little muddy because the clouds were moving between image channels (not to mention the blue channel image was rather underexposed) but here’s a color-composite of the same feature, made from images taken from a slightly different perspective:

An absolutely incredible raw image of Saturn’s swirling north pole

Pretty darn cool… Cassini does it yet again!

The images above show an approximately 3,000-4,000-km-wide cyclone above Saturn’s north pole. Saturn is also known to have a long-lived hexagonal jet stream feature around its north pole as well, but that is not shown in those images as it runs along a lower latitude. Instead, you can see that HERE:



Captured with wider angle in this image the hexagon structure can be made out as well as the vortex, which sits at the center just over the pole. Saturn’s hexagon is about 25,000 km (15,500 miles) in diameter… large enough to fit almost four Earths inside. This image was also acquired today.

An RGB composite of this feature is below:



It’s been a few years since we’ve gotten such a good look at Saturn’s north pole… thanks to Cassini’s new orbital trajectory, which is taking it high above the ring plane and poles of Saturn, we now have the opportunity to view the gas giant’s dynamic upper latitudes again. I’m sure this is just a taste of what’s to come!

An absolutely incredible raw image of Saturn’s swirling north poleThis post by Jason Major originally appeared on Universe Today.

Image credit: NASA/JPL/Space Science Institute. Color composites by Jason Major


Saturn’s moons could comprise “a veritable arcade” of Pac-Men

Posted in THE UNIVERSE & SPACE SCIENCE with tags , on November 29, 2012 by 2eyeswatching

Post 1462

Saturn’s moons could comprise “a veritable arcade” of Pac-Men

Astronomers now know that the Saturnian system has not one, but two ”Pac-Man” moons — and there could be many, many more.

Back in 2010, infrared heat maps of Mimas (also known as Saturn’s “Death Star” moon, for reasons that should be fully armed, operational and obvious), gathered by NASA’s Cassini spacecraft, revealed a Pac-Man shaped heat signature on its surface (pictured up top and below, on the left). Now, Cassini has returned evidence that Saturn’s icy moon Tethys is covered in a similar pattern.


Scientists theorize that the Pac-Man thermal shape on the Saturnian moons occurs because of the way high-energy electrons bombard low latitudes on the side of the moon that faces forward as it orbits around Saturn. The bombardment turns that part of the fluffy surface into hard-packed ice. As a result, the altered surface does not heat as rapidly in the sunshine or cool down as quickly at night as the rest of the surface, similar to how a boardwalk at the beach feels cooler during the day but warmer at night than the nearby sand. Finding another Pac-Man on Tethys confirms that high-energy electrons can dramatically alter the surface of an icy moon.

Saturn's moons could comprise "a veritable arcade" of Pac-MenIt also suggests that moons with this heat signature may be more common than we realized.

“Finding a second Pac-Man in the Saturn system tells us that the processes creating these Pac-Men are more widespread than previously thought,” said Carly Howett, the lead author of the paper describing the so-called “thermal anomaly,” published in the latest issue of the journalIcarus.

“The Saturn system – and even the Jupiter system – could turn out to be a veritable arcade of these characters.”

[Icarus via NASA]

Images via NASA/JPL-Caltech/GSFC/SWRI